**Kirchhoff’s Laws:**

Kirchhoff’s Laws is divided into two types

i) Kirchhoff’s Current Law (KCL)

ii) Kirchhoff’s Voltage Law (KVL)

## Kirchhoff’s Current Law (KCL):

Statement: The total current entering a junction is equal to the total current leaving the junction

**Explanation:**

Sign Convention: Incoming currents are taken as positive and outgoing currents as negative.

Mathematically +I1- I2 -I3 +I4 = 0

## Kirchhoff’s Voltage Law (KVL):

**Statement**: The algebraic sum of all voltages around a closed path is zero.

Mathematically, ΣIR + ΣEMF = 0

**Explanation**:

Applying KVL to loop ABCDA -I1R1-I2R2+E1 = 0

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