Elements of a communication system: A communication system is the device or sets up used in the transmission of information from one place to another. The nature of communication could also be electrical, electronic, or optical.
The basic units of communication system are as shown in Fig. 20.1. It consists of three parts. (a) Transmitter (b) Communication channel (c) Receiver.
In a communication system, the transmitter is located at one place and the receiver at some other place (near or far) which is separate from the transmitter. The transmitter and receiver are connected by the physical medium called ChannelJThe channel may be in the form of wires or cables, or maybe wireless depending upon the type of communication system. There are two basic modes of communication point-to-point communication and broadcast. In point-to-point communication mode, communication takes place over a link between one transmitter and a receiver e.g. Telephony. ln the broadcast mode, there are a large number of receivers corresponding to a single transmitter e.g. Radio and Television.
We shall Consider basic Some terms (terminologies) to understand the principles of any communication, as mentioned below:
(i) Signal: Information converted in electrical form and suitable for transmišsion is called a signal. The signal can be either analog dr digital. Analog signals are continuous variations of current or voltage. The sine wave is a fundamental analog signal. Sound and movie signals in TV are analog in nature, Digital signals are those which may take only discrete stepwise values.
(ii) Transmitter: A transmitter converts a signal produced by the source of information into a form suitable for transmission through a channel and subsequent reception.
(iii) Transducer: Any device that converts one another can be termed as a form of energy into a transducer. An electrical transducer is often defined as a tool that converts some physical variable (pressure, displacement, temperature, force, etc.) into corresponding variations within the electrical signal at its output.
(iv) Attenuation: The loss of strength of an attenuation. signal while propagating through a medium is known
(v) Amplification: Amplification is the one process of increasing the amplitude (and also strength) of a signal using an electronic circuit called the amplifier.
(vi) Noise: Noise is a random, undesirable (unwanted) electric energy that enters the communication system via the communication medium and interferes with transmitted messages. The source generating noise may be located inside or outside the system.
(vii) Receiver: a receiver extracts the desired message signals from the received signals at the channel output. It consists of a pickup antenna to select up the signal, demodulator, an amplifier, and therefore the transducer. The receiver reconstructs a recognizable sort of the first message signal for delivering it to the user of information.
(viii) Range: The maximum (largest) distance hetween a source and a destination upto which the signal is received with sufficient strength is termed as range.
ix) Bandwidth: The frequency range over which equipment operates or the portion of the spectrum occupied by the signal is referred to as bandwidth.
(x) Modulation: the method of superimposing a coffee frequency signal on a high-frequency wave, which acts as a carrier for long-distance transmission is understood as modulation.
(xi) Demodulation: The process of regaining (retrieval) of data from the carrier at the receiver is termed demodulation. (This is the reverse process of modulation).
(xii) Repeater: A repeater may be a combination of a receiver and transmitter. Repeaters are wont to extend the range of communication.
This all points are the Elements of a communication system.
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